Both declensions have an "unmarked" case, where the word takes no ending in the plural and a -i in the singular. This is true even of second declension even though the endings are otherwise very different because in the before-times, in the long-long ago, extreme Abasement in speech involved using second declension endings to refer to yourself. There's some linguistic history there I have not yet uncovered.

First Declension (People Only)

Nominative - i (subject)
Vocative ij inij "O person"
Accusative ith inith (object)
Instrumental iv iniv "by person"
Dative ish inish "to person"
Ablative ir inir "from person"
Genitive il inil "of person"
Locative im inim "with person"
Possessed ihh inihh ? ("possessed by"?)

Second Declension (everything else)

Nominative u e (subject)
Vocative uj eju "O thing"
Accusative - i (object)
Instrumental uv evu "by thing"
Dative ush eshu "to thing"
Ablative ur eru "from thing"
Genitive ul elu "of thing"
Locative um emu "with thing"
Possessed ? ? ?


Pronouns are formed using the consonant-pronoun prefix followed by the caste-marker vowel and then finally the proper plural or singular noun case ending. So, for instance:

Speaking of yourself as the object of a sentence to a caste equal:

L (first person consonant) + a (neutral/caste-equal marker) + n (vowel) th (accusative singular noun ending)

Speaking of yourself as the object of a sentence, but abased, on the other hand, would yield:


Further, interior vowels can be doubled for emphasis, so abject abasement would result in:


With a glottal stop in the middle.

I have not yet discovered whether the second pronoun remains an indicator of caste or tense.

First Declension pronoun prefixes

I l
you-close q
you-far n
he-close s
he-far sh
she-close d
she-far jz
unknown th

Second Declension Pronoun prefixes

it-close f
it-far w


These prefixes go before the verb and inflect its use.

Reverse "Not!" hha
Request "Will?" che
Question "Can?" an
Command "Must/Will" she
Permit "May" no
Emphasis "!" jzi
Prescriptive "Should!"
Reflexive on
Uncertainty "maybe"
Uncertainty/act "might"

Tense Vowels

present e
past a
future i
gnomic (eternal) u

Action completion is indicated by a suffix:

Action Complete -n
Action Incomplete -j
Action Habitual -s

These are followed by (or preceded by) the Abased/Neutral/Implacative vowels, if they're used; it's not necessary. Verbs are built via infix, using the tense vowel, the pronoun consonant, a conditional prefix (if desired) and a completion-indicator suffix, thus:

To know: kadled

I know: kad- + e (present tense) + l (first person pronoun) + -led: kadeled

Passive tense requires flipping the tense and pronoun indicators:

I am known: ka + l (first person pronoun) + e (present tense) + dled: kaledled

The active voice requires splitting the verb at the first syllable, after the consonant. For the passive voice, the split is again in the first syllable, but after the first vowel.

Prefixes add flavor:

No kadeled: "May I know?"
Hha kadeled: I REALLY DON'T KNOW!

Prefixes can be layered:

jzi no kadeled: May I know!?


At this point I'm not entirely sure on adjectives. From what I can see adjectives that modify objects (things in the second declension, the “not-people” declension) go after the noun they modify (so, “the horse beautiful”). But adjectives that modify people go in front of the noun (so, “the beautiful woman”) unless you are effacing them as another part of using the Abased mode (so, to be humble, “the woman beautiful”).

There are also separate rules for reflexives; in sentences like "She was beautiful." I am almost completely certain that the adjective is treated like a verb, so instead of saying “she was beautiful” what happens is more like “she beautiful-with-verb-endings.”

I also think adjectives might be unmodified unless they indicate a specific thing... so if you say “a beautiful woman”, you use the adjective without modifiers, but if you say "that beautiful woman (that one, over there!)," then it gets something added to it.

Caste Markers and Word OrderEdit

When speaking of oneself:

Implacable ii
Neutral ah
Abased au

When speaking of others:

Implacable eh
Neutral ih
Abased oo

Putting the rank marker after your name/pronoun/etc is humble and modest. When respecting others, you put your marker last and theirs first. When you intend to abase others, you put yours first and theirs last.

Word OrderEdit

Normal/unranked speech: SVO

Abased: OSV

Implacable: SOV

Showing Respect

familial/equals - plain pronouns to show respect - name instead of 'you' to show based, name with prefix instead of plain pronoun

NOTE HERE SAYS "for" is different preposition from "on behalf of"

Interjections and Word UsagesEdit

"What" as in "what is that" is sol. But "what" as in responding to someone calling your name is kei ("yes") or toj ("please"). Toj toj is enthusiastic "yes please" in the sense of Internet enthusiasm.

Tadi is good, great, excellent, what someone says instead of "that's cool!"

Offsite Links to DiscussionsEdit

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